Identify Factors That Negatively Influence: Non-English Major Students’ Speaking Skills
Dao Thi Thanh Hao
International Education Center, Hanoi University, Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, Vietnam
To cite this article:
Dao Thi Thanh Hao. Identify Factors That Negatively Influence: Non-English Major Students’ Speaking Skills. Higher Education Research. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2017, pp. 35-43. doi: 10.11648/j.her.20170202.12
Received: January 9, 2017; Accepted: January 20, 2017; Published: February 21, 2017
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore five main factors related to teachers, learners, content, teaching methods, and learning environment that negatively affect the speaking skills of students under Vietnamese higher educational context. The participants were 108 non-English major students at Hanoi University of Technology, at different level of English proficiency. The research instruments employed to collect data were questionnaire and classroom observation. The study generated ten major findings: (1) Teachers let students use much Vietnamese to express the ideas; (2) Teachers do not emphasise English as the medium of instruction; (3) Students’ background knowledge of English is low; (4) Students are shy and afraid of making mistakes and speaking in public; (5) Students lack motivation to speak English; (6) The curriculum and textbooks do not contain sufficient amount of exercise for speaking skills; (7) Students are not given enough time for speaking practice; (8) Teachers do not frequently organize communicative task to enhance students’ speaking skills like role-plays, discussion, debates; (9) The environment in speaking class is not really exciting and motivating; and (10) The large class size impede the efficacy of students’ speaking performance. Based on such findings, pedagogical implications are presented for both teachers and students.
Keywords: Factors, Speaking Skills, Non-English Major Students
Speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols in a variety of contexts" [1 p13]. Staab believed that "oral language is important not only as a vital communication tool that empowers us in our daily lives but also as a valuable way to learn" [2 p7]. However, spoken language production is not an easy task for any language learners, even it is viewed as of the most difficult aspect in language learning . In order to communicate well in another language, speakers must make themselves be understood by the people they are speaking with, which means there is requirement to be accurate in speaking the target language. As such, speakers are required to own sufficient basic building blocks of target language to function in such situations, otherwise it becomes challenging and even impossible for them to produce utterances. This is because speaking is a linguistic activity which covers various elements: pronunciation (sounds), morphology and lexis (words and their parts), grammar and syntax (structure), semantics, discourse (conversation and utterances), pragmatics (usage and its rules), fluency (ease of speech, confidence, coherence, and speed), and topicality (themes and ideas) [4-6]. Therefore, speakers who have no linguistic competence often speak slowly, take too long to compose utterances, do not actively join in conversation, their spoken English language sounds unnatuaral with poor grammar and incorrect pronunciation. There are three kinds of speaking situations that speakers normally find themselves involved in: interactive, partially interactive, and non-interactive. Interactive speaking situations include face to face conversations and telephone calls, in which speakers are alternately listening and speaking, and in which they have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from their conversation partner. Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where audience does not interupt the speaker’s speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge the expressions on their faces and non-verbal language whether or not he/she is being understood. Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast.
Cody  states that if there is a subject of really interest and utility, it is the art of writing and speaking one’s own language effectively. Globally, however, there exists debate that majority of EFL or ESL learners cannot speak English language properly [8-10]. In Vietnam, it is widely accepted that oral communicative competence of Vietnamese learners is far from expectation at the completion of university education. The non-English major students at Hanoi University of Technology are in the similar situation. For most of them, speaking is the most challenging skill to master. This is reflected in their low scores for the speaking test despite good performance in written or grammar examination. Besides, they are unable to sustain class discussion or debate without code switching to Vietnamese language or making grammatical and pronunciation mistakes. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that hindering their speaking competence. However, there has been so far no research conducted at this University about these paramount issues. This, hence, inspired the current researcher to implement the study in search of the answer for one main question as follows:
What are factors that negatively influence English speaking skills of non-English major students at Hanoi University of Technology?
2. Theoretical Background
The theory that umbrellas the research is of Williams and Williams , in which there are five key ingredients that impact students’ language learning namely: teacher, student, content, method/process, and environment.
2.1. Ingredient 1: Teachers
There is a critical shift in the role of teachers from knowledge transmitters to facilitator of students learning and the learning environment. The following factors related to teachers put huge impact on students’ language learning: (1) Subject knowledge (teachers’ knowledge of a certain subject); (2) Teachers’ skills (like avoiding extreme thoughts or feeling, staying calm, disengaging stress, etc.); (3) Teachers’ qualification; (4) Test giving (knowing how to assess or judge students’ performance); (5) Scientific management and human relations (for example using inventive teaching techniques, making learning interesting and effective, making every student special, promoting practical experiences, etc.); (6) Concious of small details (the manner the information is presented, the activities teachers use, the interaction way with students); (7) Knowing the students and build on their strengths; (8) Valueing and building relationship; (9) Enthusiasm.
2.2. Ingredient 2: Students
The role of students in education is vital and should be viewed beyond the traditional view of students as customers or recipients of knowledge. Besides, the diversity of individual differences among students regarding interests, learning styles, time management, demographics, experiential background, and cultural orientation can contribute the differences in receiving and processing knowledge. As such, Senge et al [12 p489] suggest that teachers should be " producers of environments that allow students to learn as much as possible". In other words, educational settings should be the learning habitats where students can develop their own individual instruction plan, potentials rather than passively receive information (, ). There are various factors related to students that affect their language learning: (1) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; (2) Various individual and social factors; (3) Hierarchy of needs (Educators must necessary things to reach students’ level of need satisfaction so that they can better focus their attention on learning; (4) Perceived well-being (that is students’ mood or life satisfaction); (5) Efficient use of energy and focus (students are taught the way to learn effectively while sustaining focus and energy; (6) Purposeful connection with work; (7) Conscientiousness and achievement; (8) Public speaking competence; (9) Study time and study habit; (10) Lecture attendance; (11) Comprehensive and long range educational plan.
2.3. Ingredient 3: Content (Curriculum and Textbook)
One of the requirements from the content is that it must be at least timely as well as accurate. At the same time, it should be useful and relevant to students. According to Olson  students’ needs in terms of curriculum and materials can be satisfied once such curriculum and materials make students feel competent, connected to others and feel in control of their learning pace. Some factors related to curriculum and textbooks are listed as detailed follows: (1) Students experience success and achievement (This requires the tasks as well as exercise to be moderate and contain an achievable level of difficulties); (2) Student ownership (Students should be given the authorities in determining class rules, learning activities, learning materials and assignment); (3) Student choices; (4) Build competency (contents that build students’ competency require assignment that can challenge their perceptions, actions, and imagination); (5) Creativity and critical thinking (content that requires students’ define the task, set goals, research and gather information, activate their existing knowledge, generating additional questions and ideas, analyze and integrate all the information) ; (6) Students feel connected (students need a sense of caring, trust, respect, community and concern with others in the learning program); (7) Novelty (discrepant events, amazing facts, games or fantasy); (8) Timely and relevant to real life (authentic materials that link real life with school subject and experiments that happen every day; (9) Variety (different kinds of material, learning styles, and activities); (10) Technology and information from the Internet (such as the updated news from social networks like Facebook, Twitter, or phone apps).
2.4. Ingredient 4: Methods/Process
The method or process is the approach in which learning content is presented to students. This plays no subordinate act in the process of receiving and processing knowledge among students. Five influencing factors concerning methods/process are: (1) Learning styles (There are four main learning styles according to Fleming  such as Visual, Aural, Read/Write and Kinesthetic); (2) Mutual goals or objectives (It is necessary for students to know what they will achieve personally from the education process. Some common objectives or goals that encourage learning and continuous improvement are teamwork, sense of ownership, sense of pride, and mutual trust and respect); (3) Social interaction (Whether or not teachers let students implement group work, discussion, presentation to promote social interaction among them); (4) Objective criteria (objective criteria need to be employed and clearly communicated in assessing students’ performance and evaluating their success. This can provide learners with chances to get progress as well as to join in decision-making process); (5) Teaching approaches (such as student-centered approach, teacher-centered approach, or teacher-student-centered approach).
2.5. Ingredient 5: Learning Environment
Environment first must be assessable and available. After that, it must promote the motivation of studying among learners. For instance, if a learning environment is boring and messy, then learners might find it difficult to pay their attention on the lecture. Rather, if the learning environment is open and free to learn from mistake, then this can foster learning motivation for learners. There are some factors related to environment that either negatively or positively impact students’ learning such as: (1) Creating effective environment ; (2) Individual and learning system design differences; (3) Including the study of self-information; (4) Empowerment; (5) Engagement and considering students and teacher opinions; (6) Teamwork; (7) Structures; (8) Distance and online learning; (9) Emotionally literate environment (that is equipping students with crucial life skills and learning behaviors such as self-awareness, social skills, empathy).
3. The Study
3.1. The Participants
At the set out of this study, 120 non-English majors aged from 18 to 22 at Hanoi University of Technology were called for voluntarily take part in the research. Their majors vary in different fields like engineering, physics, chemistry, and ICT. English is one of the compulsory subjects in their course curriculum. As to this curriculum, the time allocation for Comprehensive English class (speaking, reading, listening, and writing are all covered in this class) is three 45-minute periods per week, multiplied 30 weeks. The distributed time for learning speaking accounts for 25% out of four skills.
The research instrument to obtain data for this study was questionnaire delivered to the student and classroom observation (see appendix A and B). Among 120 questionnaire sheets distributed to 120 students, 108 received were fully completed. The questionnaire was adapted and developed from Hamad , which consists of 5 domains corresponding to 5 key ingredient factors aforementioned in the literature, i.e. (1) Teachers, (2) Students, (3) Curriculum and textbook, (4) English language teaching methods, and (5) Teaching and learning environment. To minimize the participants’ misunderstanding when answering the items, the questionnaire was translated into Vietnamese.
3.3. Data Collection and Data Procedure
Having developed the desired questionnaire, the research handed it to the non-English major students at Hanoi University of Technology. Before delivering the questionnaire sheets, the research explained thoroughly the purpose of the study, and guided the participants in detailed way to respond the items. Notably, the students can complete the sheets with no time limit, which enabled them to carefully consider their choices.
Together with questionnaire, observation was also employed to see how the teachers and the students really performed and what problems the students encountered in their own speaking lessons. With this in mind, the researcher observed four classes of first year to fourth year students, one 45-minute period for each class. The participants felt uncomfortable and unnatural being video recorded or even audio recorded, so extensive field notes were written to capture the observed events. The observation was carried out two weeks after the delivery of the questionnaire sheets.
3.4.1. Findings from Questionnaire
Domain 1: Teachers
|Questionnaire items||Frequency (%)|
|1. Teachers encourage us to answer in English language||55||12||33|
|2. Teachers let us use Vietnamese language to express our answers||57||11||32|
|3. Teachers are patient, understanding, sympathetic, and supportive||76||8||16|
|4. Teacher emphasize English as a medium of instruction||13||20||67|
As illustrated in table 1, more than half of students (55%) indicated that their teachers encouraged them to answer in English. The majority of the participants (57%) also stated that they could use Vietnamese language to express their answers. An overwhelming proportion (76%) approved the positive attitudes of the teachers in terms of being patient, understanding, sympathetic and supportive. Finally yet importantly, most of the learners (67%) showed their disagreement opinion about the item 4 "teachers emphasize English as a medium of instruction".
Domain 2: Students
|Questionnaire items||Frequency (%)|
|5. My possession of English vocabulary is NOT enough to speak English fluently||95||0||5|
|6. My grammar knowledge is NOT good enough to construct the sentences I want to say||87||6||7|
|7. I cannot think of anything to say or to lengthen the conversation||68||18||14|
|8. I am worried of criticism or losing face when speaking in public||68||21||13|
|9. I have no motivation to express myself||55||15||30|
In light of table 2 which is involved the factors related to students, dominant percentages of the participants confessed that their vocabulary and grammar knowledge were insufficient to speak English fluently (95% and 87% respectively). Besides, most of them (68%) agreed with the idea that they did not know what to say to lengthen the conversation. Notably, the exactly same figure unburdened their fear of criticism and losing face when speaking in public, making mistakes. Finally, just over a half of the learners had no motivation to express themselves.
Domain 3: Curriculum and Textbook
|Questionnaire items||Frequency (%)|
|10. All students have textbooks concern speaking skills||100||0||0|
|11. Our course curriculum contains enough exercises for speaking skills||23||34||43|
|12. The exercise in my textbook strengthen my speaking skills||25||23||52|
|13. There are many exercises in my book to be practiced inside and outside the classroom||45||34||21|
Table 3 illustrates the responses to the items related to curriculum and textbooks. The findings collected revealed that 100% students had textbook concerning speaking skills. However, while 34% of the students showed no idea, another 43% disagreed with the item 11 that "our course curriculum contains enough exercises for speaking skills". For item 12, a majority of the participants stated that the exercise in their textbook did not strengthen their speaking skills. In response to item 13, 45% believed that the exercises in the book could be used to practice speaking English inside and outside classroom.
Domain 4: English Learning and Teaching Methods
|Questionnaire items||Frequency (%)|
|14. Teachers use mixture of English language and Vietnamese language in teaching||100||0||0|
|15. Teachers use different strategies like body language, intonation …etc. to teach speaking skills||85||0||15|
|16. Teachers ask us to make presentation in English language||33||12||55|
|17. Teachers use debatable topic to encourage discussions inside the class||18||15||67|
|18. Teachers make us do role-play to practice speaking skills||35||12||53|
|19. The time devoted to speaking English language is enough||23||22||55|
|20. Extra materials and exercise are given to speaking skills||13||9||78|
Table 4 demonstrates opinions of the students on the English learning and teaching method. First, the data showed that all students (100%) stated their teachers used both Vietnamese and English in teaching. An overwhelming fraction of the students recorded their teachers’ use of body language and intonation during the speaking lessons. Item 16 "Teachers ask us to make presentation in English language" and item 17 "Teachers use debatable topic to encourage discussions inside the class" received 55% and 67% of disagreement respectively. Almost equal number of students (around 55%) opposed the statements in item 18 and item 19. Last but not least, 78% did not advocate what was in item 20 i.e. extra materials and exercise were given to speaking skills.
Domain 5: Learning Environment
|Questionnaire items||Frequency (%)|
|21. The atmosphere in speaking class is exciting and encouraging||35||29||36|
|22. The class size is large||94||3||3|
|23. We listen to the CD as a model for speaking practice||76||9||15|
|24. We learn listening and speaking in the lab||4||4||92|
Table 5 indicated the perceptions of the students towards the learning environment. Interestingly, in response to item 21, the figures for agreement and disagreement were almost the same (around 35% for each). For item 22, up to 94% stated that the class size was large. Majority was for the idea in item 23 that they listened to the CD as a model for their speaking performance. Finally, overwhelming proportion of the learners (92%) was against to the item 24 that "we learn listening and speaking in the lab".
3.4.2. Findings from the Classroom Observation
After analyzing the field notes, the researcher realized ten most common themes arising during the speaking lessons at Hanoi University of Technology, as the following details.
i. The teachers used both Vietnamese language and English language to teach the lessons
ii. The teachers frequently did not use other materials rather than textbooks to enhance the students’ speaking skills.
iii. The teachers frequently did not organize communicative activities in the class.
iv. The students uses a lot of Vietnamese language when they did teamwork.
v. The students appeared nervous and shy when speaking in front of the class.
vi. The students did not remember the structure and vocabulary to speak naturally. Most of the time they did not know what to say and had many pauses during their performance.
vii. The students did not have enough chances to express themselves due to limited time and large class size.
viii. The materials given to the students were not authentic, and updated.
ix. The speaking exercise in the textbooks was short and non-personalized.
x. The students often listened to the CD as the model for their speaking performance.
The utmost purpose of this current paper is to search for any factors related to teachers, learners, curriculum, learning/teaching methods, and learning environment that hinder speaking performance of the students participating the research. Therefore, this part serves to present only outstanding negative factors while ignoring others that do not have bad effects on the student’s speaking skills.
3.5.1. Factors Related Teachers
The findings from two research methods i.e. questionnaire and observation identify two main factors that negatively affect students’ speaking skills, related to teachers as follows.
i. Teachers let students use Vietnamese in speaking class, especially when discussion, or debate in group. Consequently, the students do not form a habit of speaking English, and so cannot simultaneously react to different authentic situations when they happen to encounter. The learners in the study of Tuan and Mai  are in a much similar context. They also say little or even nothing in English and most of the time they cannot think of what to say so they say in Vietnamese.
ii. Teachers do not consider English as a medium in giving instruction. To ensure the students’ understanding the contents, they use the mixture of both Vietnamese and English in lecturing. This results in the lack of exposure to the target language among the students. A consistent situation is documented in a study of Mai-Ngo . She states that one of the biggest challenges posed for both the Vietnamese students and lecturers are their limited ability to communicate in English well and thus the environment for learning and the teaching English in the Vietnamese universities is neither conducive for communication in English nor ready for implementing English as a medium of instruction.
3.5.2. Factors Related Students
From the responses of students and observation of the researcher, factors that hinder the students’ speaking performance are presented in a condensed way as below.
i. Students’ knowledge of vocabulary and grammar are weak so they find it difficult to orally express their opinion in English. This is a common factor that inhibit the speaking skills among Vietnamese students, and has been highlighted by a number of scholars (; ).
ii. Students feel uncomfortable, shy and afraid when speaking in front of the whole class since they fear criticism and losing face. This is in line with what Thanh-Pham  found when she investigated the barriers hampering the implementation of student-centeredness at Vietnamese higher institutions. As to her, Vietnamese students tend to be reticent in communicative activities such as presenting their opinion, answering questions, or joining in debates as they might be shameful if their responses are incorrect. For a long time, the aspect of preservation of "face" has been existed not only in Vietnamese culture but also in Asian cultures in general. This builds up an option in students’ mind that they would rather keep their ideas in mind than appearing silly if their points of view are wrong (; ).
iii. Students lack motivation to speak English in the class. This results in the inactiveness among students to participate in speaking activities. As in previous literature, motivation is one of the most important factors that decide the involvement and learning outcomes of learners . Once the students do not have any motivation for their speaking English in the class, they tend to be reticent and reluctant to participate in the communication activities.
3.5.3. Factors Related Curriculum and Textbooks
Findings from both researcher’s observation semi structured field notes and students’ answers highlight the following problems.
i. The curriculum and textbooks do not contain enough exercise for students to practice speaking skills. Rather, the materials focus more on other skills like listening, reading, or writing. Besides, they are not updated or authentic so students often find it less exciting to do the tasks assigned.
ii. Few extra materials are used to promote speaking practice for students. This phenomenon is in line with Thanh-Pham  in that almost all Vietnamese universities have so far used textbooks as the unique information source, therefore, students really lack chances to practice, not to mention to master speaking skills.
iii. The exercise do not strengthen speaking skills of students. This is because most of speaking exercise in commercial books are grammar-translation-based and drill-based. They are also not authentic, dated, and irrelevant to Vietnamese context so students easily find it boring to complete.
3.5.4. Factors Related Teaching and Learning Methods
From the perceptions of students and the observation of teacher, factors related teaching and learning methods are identified obviously.
i. Students are not given enough time for speaking practice. This is due to limited time for a speaking lesson that last for only 90 minutes, and big classes which often have 40 to 50 students. Students therefore are not provided with sufficient time for preparation, rehearsal, and presentation. At Hanoi University of Technology, teachers tend to invite those who are voluntary to perform their speaking task to save time. This finding consistently agrees with that of Thanh-Pham .
ii. Teachers do not frequently organize communicative task to enhance students’ speaking skills like role-plays, discussion, or debates. Traditionally, Vietnamese teachers have used long-established grammar translation method to teach English skills including speaking skills. The papers conducted by Hiep Tran , Thanh-Pham  have a high level of similarity with this finding.
3.5.5. Factors Related Learning Environment
When it comes to learning environment, the findings generated from multi research instruments indicate some following points.
i. Large class size negatively affects the efficacy of students’ learning speaking. Since there are many students in a class so teachers do not have enough time to monitor, assess the performance and give feedbacks for all. Therefore, the learners do not know how good or bad their speaking performances are, and what suggestions they should follow in order to better improve their communicative skills. This is congruous with Thanh-Pham  in that big classes are one of the principal reasons preventing the implementation of any teamwork in Vietnamese classroom. Teachers, consequently, have no other choice but have to adopt lecturing to ensure that they distribute knowledge to students equally and fairly. In such learning environment, students tend to be passive and reproductive in expressing themselves.
ii. The atmosphere in the speaking classes at Hanoi University of Technology appear to be rather boring and less motivating. This is the inter-factor influencing the lack of motivation to study speaking skills among the students. As to Zarrinabadi & Tanbakooei , learning atmosphere can play a vital role in motivating the willingness to communicate among learners. Some other studies under Vietnamese education context like those of Van-Tran , Hiep-Pham  came out with the similar findings.
Despite the researcher’s great efforts in conducting the current study, certain limitation could be inevitably identified. The most outstanding one is that due to limited time, the researcher could only implemented her classroom observation for one period of 45 minutes in each class. One-time observation cannot enable her to document all the practices and problems of the students related to English speaking skills. In addition, the existence of one more qualitative research instrument such as personal interview might help strengthen the overall findings, rather than only two research methods implemented in this study. As such, it is necessary for the researcher to carry out further research about the current issues with proper time as well as congruous and rigorous methodology in the near future.
4. Pedagogical Implications
Overall findings of the study has shed light on the teaching and learning speaking skills of teachers as well as students under the context of Vietnamese higher education.
For the teachers
First of all, it is of significance for teachers to emphasize English as a medium of instruction in English class. They should speak English frequently so that the learners could have more exposure to the target language. Second, teachers should not let their students to use much mother tongue to interact during the lessons. Instead, they should promote interactive techniques and encourage students to respond in English. The third suggestion is that teachers should motivate the students to speak, and help them overcome the fear and shyness by creating a friendly, supportive, and cooperative learning environment, as well as providing them with clear careful instruction. Fourth, it is implicated that teachers should provide students with better chances to practice speaking English in class by interspersing lecturing with various communicative tasks like role-plays, discussion, and debatable topics argumentation.
For the students
They, first, should be aware of the utmost importance of speaking skills in their long- life learning path and future career. Once the students understand the significance of speaking skills, they can have motivation for their learning. Another advice for the learners is that they should actively participate in different speaking tasks in class, using English to do such tasks. This help form the habit of speaking English among them. Besides, students are highly recommended to join English clubs and societies inside and outside the universities so that they can use this target language to communicate with other members.
For the sake of brevity, through the mixed research methods, the study attempted to figure out factors affecting the speaking performance of students at Hanoi University of Technology related to five domains aforementioned: teachers; students; curriculum and textbook; teaching and learning methods; and learning environment. To be in details, the factors are (1) Teachers let students use much Vietnamese to express the ideas. (2) Teachers do not emphasise English as the medium of instruction. (3) Students’ background knowledge of English is low. (4) Students are shy and afraid of making mistakes and speaking in public. (5) Students lack motivation to speak English. (6) The curriculum and textbooks do not contain sufficient amount of exercise for speaking skills. (7) Students are not given enough time for speaking practice. (8) Teachers do not frequently organize communicative task to enhance students’ speaking skills like role-plays, discussion, debates. (9) The environment in speaking class is not really exciting and motivating. (10) The large class size impede the efficacy of students’ speaking performance.
Although firm generalization is not likely to be drawn from this current study, the findings implicate the urgent requirement of systematic commitment from various stakeholders. Not only teachers and students but also top authorities should get involve in addressing students’ speaking problems and minimizing factors that hinder their speaking performance so that students can master oral communicative skills to well prepare for their future prospect.
Appendix A. Observation Sheet
|Time||Class||Content||Teacher’s activities||Student’s activities|
Appendix B. Questionnaire Sheet
The purpose of this questionnaire is to collect information in the search of factors that negatively influence on non-English major students at Hanoi University of Technology. All information will be confidential. There are no foreseeable associated risks involved in the project other than inconvenience. Thank you for taking the time to answer thoughtfully and sincerely these questions.
Please tick your choice in the grid according to the scale: Disagree, No idea, Agree
Domain 1. Factors related to teachers that negatively affect your speaking skills
|Questionnaire items||Agree||No idea||Disagree|
|1. Teachers encourage us to answer in English language|
|2. Teachers let us use Vietnamese language to express our answers|
|3. Teachers are patient, understanding, sympathetic, and supportive|
|4. Teacher emphasize English as a medium of instruction|
Domain 2. Factors related to students that negatively affect speaking skills
|Questionnaire items||Agree||No idea||Disagree|
|5. My possession of English vocabulary is NOT enough to speak English fluently|
|6. My grammar knowledge is NOT good enough to construct the sentences I want to say|
|7. I cannot think of anything to say or to lengthen the conversation|
|8. I am worried of criticism or losing face when speaking in public|
|9. I have no motivation to express myself|
Domain 3. Factors related to curriculum and textbook that negatively affect speaking skills
|Questionnaire items||Agree||No idea||Disagree|
|10. All students have textbooks concern speaking skills|
|11. Our course curriculum contains enough exercises for speaking skills|
|12. The exercise in my textbook strengthen my speaking skills|
|13. There are many exercises in my book to be practiced inside and outside the classroom|
Domain 4. Factors related to learning/teaching methods that negatively affect speaking skills.
|Questionnaire items||Agree||No idea||Disagree|
|14. Teachers use mixture of English language and Vietnamese language in teaching|
|15. Teachers use different strategies like body language, intonation …etc. to teach speaking skills|
|16. Teachers ask us to make presentation in English language|
|17. Teachers use debatable topic to encourage discussions inside the class|
|18. Teachers make us do role-play to practice speaking skills|
|19. The time devoted to speaking English language is enough|
|20. Extra materials and exercise are given to speaking skills|
Domain 5. Factors related to learning environment that negatively affect speaking skills
|Questionnaire items||Agree||No idea||Disagree|
|21. The atmosphere in speaking class is exciting and encouraging|
|22. The class size is large|
|23. We listen to the CD as a model for speaking practice|
|24. We learn listening and speaking in the lab|